For me, that event was Hurricane Hugo in 1989. [31] Crops on the island including banana and coffee sustained widespread losses. Satellite [52], All government buildings and schools in Montserrat were impacted. [102], Between 15–20 thousand people were left homeless in Charleston County. [8] This intensity made Hugo the strongest hurricane to strike the United States in 20 years. [5][24], Across both Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, 217 shelters were opened; over 161,000 people sought refuge in these shelters. [31], Saint Thomas experienced hurricane-force winds and sustained widespread damage to property and vegetation; damage was less severe than on Saint Croix due to Saint Thomas's position farther away from the core of Hugo. The low density of surface wind observations in the Caribbean and the Carolinas presented problems during and after Hugo in trying to reconstruct Hugo's movement and intensity (U.S. Department of Commerce 1990). These agencies were mobilized ahead of Hugo's arrival in the Lesser Antilles. [37] Cruise ships with San Juan as their port of call were rerouted elsewhere. [102] At Shaw Air Force Base near Sumter, 200 homes were destroyed and 1,000 sustained heavy damage;[121] the property damage toll for Sumter County was $237 million. Standing by my bedroom window for the next two hours I watched wind gusts exceed 40 mph, then 50 mph, then 60 mph. National Weather Service When Hurricane Hugo occurred in 1989 the NWS used analog WSR-57 and WSR-74 radars. [104] Across eight counties, manufacturers incurred $158 million in damage to factories and $750 million in inventory and income losses. [8][9] Few storms of this variety make landfall on the United States, with only nine doing so as major hurricanes between 1906 and 1989. [19] Though no formal evacuation order was enacted for Martinique, the prefect of Martinique recommended the evacuation of the low-lying Kinsale area on September 16. This led to scattered and brief power outages that affected 30,000 electricity customers. Rainfall totals were surprisingly low for such a large and powerful hurricane. [8][11] Concurrently, the eye of the storm expanded to a diameter of 40 mi (65 km). [145]:A6 Dubbed Operation Hawkeye, the operation involved elements of the Army, Navy and the Coast Guard, along with a contingent from the U.S. When: 9 PM Friday until 9 PM Saturday. [142] On the island of Saint Croix, looting and lawlessness reigned in the aftermath of Hugo. Hurricane Laura and the Wind Speed Dilemma. Nearly 85,000 homes and businesses lost power on Long Island. NWS Wilmington Radar [83] At Carraízo Dam, San Juan's primary supplier of water, five electric motors in the pumping station were inundated, disrupting water distribution; replacement of these motors cost $200,000. In addition, high winds and heavy rainfall also occurred in the St. Lawrence River Valley. WSOC-TV's 400-foot tall antenna tower was blown down onto the station itself. In Hurricane Hugo continuous recordings of wind speed and direction were made at two coastal locations, the Charleston Naval Base, at a height of 36 m in suburban terrain, and Myr tle Beach Air Force Base, at a height of 3 m in open terrain. By daybreak on September 22nd the storm had been inland for many hours and the eye was no longer discernible in satellite and radar imagery. Nonetheless, winds can stay above hurricane strength well inland. Marine Obs (Map) [66] Eleven people were killed in the Netherlands Antilles and caused $50 million in damage there. Declines in the populations of certain bird species were also noted in Saint John. An investigation was launched, which led to some reforms in FEMA procedures that helped the agency do a somewhat better job during Hurricane Andrew, the next catastrophic hurricane to strike the United States. [106] Widespread flash flooding occurred across eastern Tennessee, forcing the evacuation of people from affected areas; some of the evacuees had fled South Carolina for the Great Smoky Mountains. "[115] Lesser damage occurred along the southern South Carolina coast between Charleston, South Carolina, and Savannah, Georgia, with winds there remaining below 65 mph (105 km/h). I looked more closely. Then I landed my second television job in north Louisiana, at KNOE in Monroe between 1984 and 1988. We were all warning people to tie down their patio furniture and prepare for damaging winds and power outages. In Awendaw the storm tide reached 19.4 feet, and the U.S. 17 bridge across Awendaw Creek was destroyed. Churches and other private non-profit groups managed replacement housing for Hugo victims in at least four South Carolina counties whose governments lacked such capabilities. The coverage of these watches and warnings were incrementally revised leading up to Hugo's final landfall; at their greatest extent, hurricane watches were in effect between St. Augustine, Florida, and the Chesapeake Bay, while hurricane warnings were in effect between Fernandina Beach, Florida, and Oregon Inlet in North Carolina. So they, too, had to be "safe" in the hallway with us. Eighty percent of roofs in the city were damaged, with many already susceptible to strong winds due to poor maintenance and weak structural integrity. By 11:00am, the sun was out, we were still off the air, and there was little more I could do. Many homes on Wadmalaw Island and Johns Island were crushed by fallen trees. [48] Parts of the Georgia and North Carolina coasts also evacuated ahead of Hugo. Vickie was fine, we lived in a new subdivision - you know, the kind where they mow down all the trees before building the first house? [31] A state of emergency was declared in the Dominican Republic on September 18. I didn't realize it at the time but I was watching power lines arcing as trees fell across them. A hurricane in the northern hemisphere will have cyclonic flow, meaning the wind is flowing towards the low pressure at the center of the storm in a counterclockwise fashion. Only a few beachfront homes withstood the hurricane in Pawleys Island. Local Forecasts [133], Similar effects were reported in New Brunswick, though little rainfall occurred in the province. As I drove to work and saw the trees bending in the wind, I really felt vulnerable and thought I had waited too long to get to work. The sloping terrain near Christiansted accelerated winds near the surface by as much as 20 percent, enhancing the damage wrought. [77] Approximately ninety percent of homes suffered either major to total roof loss,[78] with the most severe damage occurring in the Kinsale and St. Patrick's areas. [159], Sewage contamination and poor water quality briefly impacted shellfish populations along the coast of South Carolina. Sporadic damage from Hugo occurred as far east as Interstate 95. Even given the relatively primitive computer models of the day, forecasts for Hugo's landfall consistently targeted the coast of South or North Carolina. Storm surge of 3 to 4 feet was experienced by the BVI and wave height activity of 9 to 12 feet was observed in some areas. Hurricanes are rated by wind speed on a scale of 1 (74 to 95 mph) to 5 (greater than 155 mph). [26] Some of these shelters took heavy damage during Hugo, and one required evacuation by civil defense authorities after its windows gave way to the wind. [89]:14-A A UH-1 helicopter and two heavy trucks belonging to the National Guard were destroyed by debris. [83], Hugo was the first significant hurricane to strike the Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico region since Hurricane Betsy in 1956. We ended up firing up a small portable generator which from my understanding may have produced a signal several miles in diameter, but it didn’t matter. [28] Power and water distillation facilities operated by the Virgin Islands Water & Power Authority west of the city were disabled by the storm. Leading up to the curfew, residents rushed hardware stores and supermarkets to stock up on supplies. Monroe is a solid 200 miles inland, but both these storms produced very rough weather across our area and thus, I thought I had learned what to expect from dying hurricanes which move that far inland. Aviation Hugo, classified as a hurricane made landfall on September 22, 1989. [28] No official wind measurements were taken on Saint Croix as weather observers evacuated their post at Alexander Hamilton International Airport (now known as Henry E. Rholsen International Airport); the extent of the damage suggested that the entire island was within the envelope of the hurricane's strongest winds. A temporary hospital was established at the Montserrat Government House following the destruction of a recently completed hospital. [17] Flight data showed that the plane likely encountered a mesovortex comparable to a weak tornado spanning a kilometer across. Game over. A well-researched magazine-style book detailing Hurricane Hugo's impact across South and North Carolina. [101] Every building on the two islands took damage from the hurricane. [8] This made Hugo the strongest hurricane to strike Guadeloupe since a hurricane each in 1899 and 1928. Many on the Atlantic-facing side of Guadeloupe evacuated farther inland. [142] It also resulted in the first operational deployment of the National Disaster Medical System (NDMS), when the New Mexico-1 Disaster Medical Assistance Team (DMAT) was deployed to assist in medical care needs of the stricken island. Based on the Saffir-Simpson scale, wind speeds of 74 to 95 miles per hour would categorize a hurricane as a “category 1.”A “category 5” hurricane has wind speeds above 157 miles per hour. As late as the year 2005 it was still possible to see numerous rotting tree stumps and toppled tree trunks in this area, along with a noticably reduced forest canopy height. Wind today, live map and prediction radar. Ships at the marina in Isle of Palms were crumpled into a heap on the mainland shore. ", This page was last edited on 12 December 2020, at 18:08. Springmaid Pier was reduced to only 150 feet in length with two other piers in Myrtle Beach destroyed by the combination of storm surge and large crashing waves. [27] The Puerto Rican school system was hindered by the damage inflicted on the schools themselves, their use as shelters, and the loss of water and power service. [83][95] At Luquillo, the storm surge reached 8 ft (2.4 m), with waves atop the elevated waters reaching at least 10 ft (3.0 m). Non-critical patients at Princess Margaret Hospital in Roseau, Dominica were sent home beginning on September 15 to free space for possible hurricane victims. [117] A conservative estimate valued the lost timber statewide at $1.04 billion. [143][89]:1A FBI agents, U.S. marshals, and local police initially maintained a patrol of Frederiksted and Christiansted while the U.S. Coast Guard evacuated tourists from the island;[144][145]:A1 the USCGC Bear evacuated 40 people and sent personnel onshore to monitor the situation. [21]:4 Along with the crew of the Alacrity, the Barbados Defence Force and Jamaica Defence Force also assisted in road cleanup operations in Montserrat. Particularly hard hit were peaches, soybeans, cotton, pecans, and pine plantation forests. Sullivan's Island experienced water 13 feet above mean sea level, and many of the older homes east of Marshall Avenue were destroyed. Storm impacts below are grouped by location. [56] The San Juan Star estimated losses in the territory amounted to $2 billion while Storm Data, a monthly publication from the National Centers for Environmental Information, estimated that damage reached $1 billion; property damage accounted for $900 million while crop damage accounted for $100 million. At 04:00 UTC on September 22, Hugo made landfall on Sullivan's Island, South Carolina, with sustained winds of 140 mph (220 km/h). [95] Condado suffered widespread damage and debris bestrewed its streets. Up to a quarter of York County's cotton crop was lost, with additional losses suffered by peach, sorghum, and soybean crops. I think the eye passed somewhere near Sumter, SC which is only 30 miles away. Let us assume a hurricane has constant wind speeds of 100 mph and the storm itself is moving at 20 mph directly West. Includes video from downtown Georgetown and the area near the steel mill. Wind gusts up to 168 mph (270 km/h) were measured in Saint Croix, where property damage exceeded $500 million with over 90 percent of buildings damaged; three people were killed on the island. [28] The entirety of Guadeloupe's banana crop and most of its coconut palms and sugar cane crops were ruined by Hugo. [30] Hugo tracked through the Virgin Islands on September 18 and destroyed 30 percent of homes in the archipelago. The highest wind speed recorded during Hugo was about 135 mph. Cyril E. King Airport in Saint Thomas, having suffered less damage, resumed operations within 24 hours. This turned out to be Hugo's maximum intensity. [113] Beaches were eroded by a 13-foot (4 m) surge up to the most outward row of homes in Garden City. [21]:4[54], Hugo was the costliest hurricane in U.S. history at the time and one of its costliest disasters overall, with a damage toll of $8 billion estimated by the NHC. Flood and wind impacts followed Hugo across much of the eastern United States and into eastern Canada. Hugo ripped holes in mobile homes and snapped in half entire forests of pine trees, many in … [2] Across the Carolinas, Hugo's winds increased the quantity of downed brush, timber, and debris by up to 15 times their normal amounts, significantly increasing the risk of wildfires throughout the region. Winds would eventually gust to an unbelievable 100 mph in Charlotte! The storm also wiped out most of the island's fishing fleet,[54] and many ships were grounded by 24-foot (7.3 m) waves. Power out. Social Media Feeds Sixty percent of the sand dunes in Long Beach were eliminated by the hurricane, further exposing areas inland to the storm's fury. Floodwaters inundated urban areas and basements. It was a beautiful park setting. Although damage to the affected areas was extensive, an assessment of relevant data indicates that the actual wind speeds were far lower than those reported by the news media. [27] Another six were killed in Guayama. Pleasant and Awendaw, SC:  Ground zero for Hugo's landfall on the South Carolina coast, Mt. [54], Although Martinique was struck by many significant storms in the 18th and 19th centuries, the last major hurricane to strike the island before Hugo occurred in 1928. Two people were killed in Le Moule. There were 26 fatalities in the United States attributed directly to the weather conditions produced by Hugo; among the country's states and territories, South Carolina had the highest death toll with 13 direct fatalities. By the morning of September 10th the system displayed enough organization on satellite imagery that it was classified as a tropical depression, the eleventh one of the 1989 Hurricane Season. [31] Due to a lack of planning for housing shelter residents, 500 schools remained closed weeks after the storm, affecting at least 150,000 students. [68] Hourly rainfall rates averaged roughly 2 in (50 mm) per hour in the core of the hurricane. As a result of high winds, power poles were toppled and tree branches fell, which caused most of New Brunswick's 15,000 power failures. Seven to eight hundred boats were left in derelict condition,[103] and many in Shem Creek capsized. Wind forecast for the next days and hours. [132] In Vermont, the high winds generated swells several feet high on Lake Champlain, freeing some boats from their moorings. When the sun came up, someone came running down the hall yelling, ‘Oh My God, come down to the radio station and look out the window! [3] The heavy rainfall drained into the Fajardo River and Mameyes River, causing them to set new records for discharge rates;[85] three other rivers reached discharge rates within 10–15 percent of their highest on record. Ninety percent of homes on the island suffered significant to total roof loss after the island was struck by the eyewall. Hugo: Catalyst for Change. However, the increased exposure to sunlight following the loss of tree canopies led to increased diversity of plant species. Although the scale shows wind speeds in continuous speed ranges, the National Hurricane Center and the Central Pacific Hurricane Center assign tropical cyclone intensities in 5-knot (kt) increments (e.g., 100, 105, 100, 115 kt, etc.) [8] The intensity of the winds decreased after landfall, particularly as Hugo began interacting with the Appalachian Mountains; by dawn on September 22, Hugo was downgraded to a tropical storm when it was just west of Charlotte, North Carolina. Schools operated on a two-hour delay for roughly another week to give students without power at home extra time (and sunlight) to get ready for school. High Wind Warning #1. [97] Practically every building was damaged, though only minor injuries occurred. The system was first used in real-time during Hurricane Emily in … As a Pittsburgh native and Penn State graduate in Meteorology, Tropical Weather was not my top priority since I never had a personal encounter or experience with those kinds of storms growing up. Hurricane Hugo--An Eyewitness Account by George Metts. [8] Hurricane-force winds lasted for an unusually long time, battering the island from the late evening of September 17 to the morning of September 18. With no pool to practice in, Duncan turned to basketball. [1] The presence of debris on roads hampered relief efforts and increased recovery costs. Hugo was Montserrat's costliest hurricane on record and brought down the island's entire power grid. [52][61] A fifth of the country was rendered homeless and the entire populace lost power and water. The islands' telephone systems were badly crippled by the storm, and only limited service was restored to businesses in December 1989. The actual elevation was only 10 feet above sea level, meaning Hugo's 16 foot storm surge swept 6 feet of seawater into the school gynmasium full of evacuees. The types of surface measurements available are discussed. I don't know when I fell asleep, but it was to a constant sound of bangs, whistles and rattles from the winds outside. "[38]:4A NASA delayed the September 22 launch of an Atlas-Centaur rocket with Hugo looming. The storm became slightly disorganized as it continued on its westward track, and the maximum sustained wind speeds fell to 90 mph. [112], Coastal impacts in South Carolina were extensive beyond Charleston County. Daily visible and infrared satellite images from NOAA's polar orbiting satellites are presented here. The control tower at Charlotte Douglas International Airport clocked a 99 mph (159 km/h) gust,[122] forcing personnel in the airport's control tower to evacuate. [101] The Red Cross documented the destruction of 3,307 single-family homes and "major damage" to another 18,171. In Hurricane Hugo continuous recordings of wind speed and direction were made at two coastal locations, the Charleston Naval Base, at a height of 36 m in suburban terrain, and Myr tle Beach Air Force Base, at a height of 3 m in open terrain. [114] M. L. Love, the administrator for Horry County, said that the city "for all practical purposes is gone. [95] The winds overturned cars and toppled trees and streetlights around the city. [3] The outer rainbands of Hugo began moving across Puerto Rico at 5:00 p.m. AST (21:00 UTC) on September 17. In closing, while I do carry a few fond memories from that event, make no mistake, I hope I never see anything like that again in my lifetime. Office History Timeline Please select one of the following: ** personal communication with Seburn Crocker of Mooresville, NC, September 2014. [51] Partial damage was documented on 1,500 homes and total loss was documented on 106. [79] The headquarters of the Montserrat government lost much of its roof. Surge height was estimated at 13 feet above sea level. What is an intense hurricane? Sumter County, SC:  One fatality occurred in a mobile home, with nearly a thousand homes damaged and over 200 destroyed. The Catawba County school system was closed for several days as roads were cleared and damage assessed. A smaller exodus occurred at Saint Thomas and Saint John. Several members of repair crews were killed or injured in South Carolina and Puerto Rico from ungrounded portable generators. Garden City, SC:  Although the worst of Hugo's wind remained just south of Garden City a tremendous storm surge wiped out up to 90 percent of homes and undermined beachfront hotels and condos. [78] All supply lines and the generator operated by Molec, Montserrat's electricity company, were incapacitated. Heavy rainfall also occurred in Ontario, with precipitation in Ontario peaking at 4.5 in (110 mm), while a maximum amount of 1.85 in (47 mm) was reported in Toronto. Hurricane Hugo was one of the costliest and most intense hurricanes ever to hit the United States, let alone the Carolinas. The storm also devastated the Caribbean Islands of Guadeloupe, St. Croix, and Puerto Rico. [64] Landslides isolated towns for many days. Lake Norman north of Charlotte also accumulated some rare species including three Brown Noddys. I must admit, that gave me pause. The second and third rows of homes experienced lesser damage. Sunset Beach, NC:  Surprisingly little damage occurred to this westernmost beach town in Brunswick County. [122] Three beach communities in Brunswick County, North Carolina, incurred a total of $55 million in damage;[124] with at least 25 beachfront homes battered by the storm;[2] another 100 structures were threatened by coastal erosion. [58][81] This total was over three times higher than that inflicted by Hurricane Frederic, the previous costliest hurricane. [149], Puerto Rican Governor Hernandez Colón solicited a disaster declaration for Puerto Rico from President Bush after surveying the damage wrought by Hugo. [15][16] It had been deployed to Barbados alongside another WP-3D Orion as part of a research experiment coordinated by the Hurricane Research Division. [47], The hurricane watch for the Carolinas was issued 30 hours before Hugo's landfall. Trees and power lines were also brought down by the winds statewide. [70] A station in Gardel documented 3.66 in (93 mm) of rain in one hour. [92]:9A Power and water supplies in San Juan were cut for more than a week in some areas. [159], A survey of bird populations in Saint Croix observed that Hugo's aftermath may have stressed birds more than the hurricane's immediate meteorological forces. Surf Forecast My wife got a mattress and took all the children into the interior hallway in hopes that we would have a better chance of survival there. [160] The populations or habitats of three endangered Puerto Rican birds were affected by Hugo: the Puerto Rican amazon (Amazona vittata), the Yellow-shouldered blackbird (Agelaius xanthomus), and the Puerto Rican plain pigeon (Columba inornata wetmorei). Later storms (The Superstorm of 1993, Hurricane Floyd, Hurricane Charley, Hurricane Isabel, and Hurricane Irene) haven't eclipsed the wind speeds I observed during Hugo or had the same impact on me personally. Hugo arose from a cluster of thunderstorms near Cape Verde on September 10, 1989. [29] Many boats in Culebra were damaged,[83] including those that sought refuge in Ensenada Honda. Civil defense officials aided preparations in Puerto Plata and evacuated a beach there. Total property and crop damage in Connecticut amounted to at least $50,000. We were without power in my neighborhood for three days. Diploma earned. The waterfront in Georgetown suffered heavily, with the destruction of 150 homes. Hugo's northward acceleration at landfall led to unusually large and significant impacts to forests between South Carolina and Virginia, inflicting further damage to property; in South Carolina alone the loss of timber was estimated at $1.04 billion. Orangeburg and Clarendon counties, SC:  Large scale damage occurred to agricultural interests. [52] Bridges and storm drains also took heavy damage. The system was first used in real-time during Hurricane Emily in 1993 (Burpee et al., 1994). Up to 80 percent of roofs in the city of Charleston were damaged. A NWS Eastern Region technical attachment (90-7A) with unique local data of Hugo's passage through Charleston. I felt a sense of danger. [82], In addition to the rain, surge, and wind associated with Hugo, the National Severe Storms Forecast Center received unconfirmed reports of tornadoes produced by Hugo in South Carolina and west-central North Carolina, though it was difficult to differentiate tornadic damage from the broader-swaths of wind damage caused by the hurricane. Page Created: September 16, 2014 Weather Activity Planner [140][151], An overnight curfew was enacted by Charleston Mayor Joseph P. Riley Jr. on September 22 while martial law was declared for Sullivan's Island. When Hurricane Irma was headed toward the coast of southern Florida in August, it had maximum wind speeds of 185 mph, according to the New … Meteorologist Robb Ellis, WISH TV, Indianapolis, IN. The National Hurricane Center (NHC) considered Hugo to be a "classical Cape Verde hurricane", referring to the storm's origins near Cape Verde. [8], Hugo's encounter with Puerto Rico weakened the storm substantially: its eye became ill-defined in satellite imagery and its winds had diminished to around 100 mph (155 km/h). A paper published in 1992 titled Disturbance Effects of Hurricane Hugo on a Pristine Coastal Landscape: North Inlet, South Carolina, USA discussed how ecosystems were impacted by Hugo's saltwater storm surge that moved a great distance inland across the low terrain between the ocean and Winyah Bay. Home video of Hugo's impact in Florence, SC. Tremendous damage to trees was observed. Le cas du cyclone Hugo en Guadeloupe", "Physical Aspects of Hurricane Hugo in Puerto Rico", Photo gallery of Hurricane Hugo's impacts in South Carolina, Helicopter footage of damage in Pawleys' Island, South Carolina, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hurricane_Hugo&oldid=993824981, Hurricanes in the United States Virgin Islands, Natural disasters in the United States Virgin Islands, 1989 natural disasters in the United States, Pages containing links to subscription-only content, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Guimaraes, Paulo, Frank L. Hefner, and Douglas P. Woodward. [146] The first contingent arrived in Saint Croix on the morning of September 21 to secure an airfield and devise the command structure for the other arriving troops. Widespread power outages lasted weeks in some remote locations. Hurricane Hugo was without a doubt the most intense storm I have personally witnessed. Marshals Service and the FBI, forming Joint Task Force (JTF) 40 for Operation Hawkeye. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, United States Agency for International Development, United Nations Office of the United Nations Disaster Relief Coordinator, Sea, Lake, and Overland Surge from Hurricanes, high and low voltage distribution networks, National Centers for Environmental Information, United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit, Governor of the United States Virgin Islands, Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame, List of North Carolina hurricanes (1980–1999), "Montserrat: Emergency Planning, Response and Recovery Related to Hurricane Hugo", "Hurricane Hugo: South Carolina Forest Land Research and Management Related to the Storm", Learning from Hurricane Hugo: Implications for Public Policy, Hurricane Hugo: Learning from South Carolina, "Disaster Recovery After Hurricane Hugo in South Carolina", "Hurricane Hugo: Effects on South Carolina's Forest Resource", "Hugo Kills 9 As It Closes In On Puerto Rico", "A3) What is a super-typhoon? Shaw Air Force Base in Sumter recorded a wind gust of 95 knots (109 mph) as the eye of Hugo brushed by just to the south. [150] Police were dispatched to retail areas, offices of political parties, and the main San Juan post office to avert looting. The largest of these areas of complete damage I saw covered an area approximately 500 feet long by 150 feet wide along Robinson Road between NC Highway 10 and Sandy Ford Road. The destruction of habitats forced the relocation of some avian species such as the pearly-eyed thrasher (Margarops fuscatus) and northern waterthrush (Seiurus noveboracensis). [21]:4 The island's power grid was left entirely dysfunctional following the storm across both high and low voltage distribution networks. In the eastern suburbs of Cleveland, flooding overtook cars and buses. Hurricane Hugo was a powerful Cape Verde tropical cyclone that inflicted widespread damage across the northeastern Caribbean and the Southeastern United States in September 1989. The storm weakened inland and accelerated north, transitioning into an extratropical cyclone on September 23 before it was last noted in the far northern Atlantic on September 25. Across Southeastern North Carolina rainfall amounts ranged from around half an inch eight miles south of Wilmington to 1.30 inches near the Ocean Isle Bridge in Brunswick County, NC. Newspaper reports said Ocean Boulevard was covered by sand and several feet of water in the North Myrtle Beach area. Hurricane Hugo was one of the major hurricanes. Nekton communities suffered increased mortality in river channels and marsh creeks near the Charleston harbor due to hypoxia and lowered salinity in the water, though their populations recovered within two months. With no cell phones, and a certainty the power was out at my home, it was time to get there and check on my wife. 400 passengers west Virginia government offices, and the area at midnight September 27, of. Facilities at W. H. 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