Retardation and reaction mechanisms of magnesium phosphate cement mixed with glacial acetic acid. Thus, the use of calcined or deadburned magnesia is suggested. 6H2O is crystallized in a larger size and the morphology is changed from acicular to bladed and then prismatic shape. José N, Ahmed H, Miguel B, Luís E, Jorge B. Reaction of magnesium with carbon dioxide. Novel tricalcium silicate/magnesium phosphate composite bone cement having high compressive strength, in vitro bioactivity and cytocompatibility. magnesium phosphate mixture calcium sulphate Prior art date 1962-11-23 Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. These results confirm that VAPOL magnesium phosphate is ideal for promoting the aza-Darzens reaction efficiently and with selectivity. The ADS is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory under NASA Cooperative 2005;27:11–18. 1 decade ago. The production of fertilizer magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP, Mg.NH 4 PO 4 .6H 2 O), commonly known as struvite, has been investigated in this study by mixing waste effluents of different sources. During the reaction of phosphate bonds with magnesium oxide, magnesium phosphates are formed confering hardness on the magnesia concretes. magnesium phosphate. The influence of FAC on the strength, water resistance, pH, and setting time of MPC–FAC composite cement were examined. The reaction between a reactive form of magnesia and acid ammo- nium phosphate is very rapid and exothermic, and the materials cannot be practically used as such. Epub 2015 Apr 15. Hydration process and microstructure of magnesium potassium phosphate cement with nitrate solution. Magnesium will react with cabon dioxide, when heated, forming magnesium oxide and elemental carbon [6]: ... (II) is not precipitated by phosphate ions under acetic acid conditions. 2020 Oct 23;13(21):4752. doi: 10.3390/ma13214752. The influence of FAC on the strength, water resistance, pH, and setting time of MPC-FAC composite cement were examined. Solution for Phosphoric acid reacts with magnesium hydroxide to produce magnesium phosphate and water via the following reaction:… Phosphoric acid, magnesium salt. Acta Biomater. chem:ionic equations. This struvite adheres to the unreacted dead-burned magnesia parti-cles, leading to solid particle formation. ( a ) 1…, SEM images of MPC–40FAC composite at different curing ages (( a ) 1…, EDS of MPC or MPC–40FAC at different areas. XRD patterns of MPC paste at different curing ages. After conversion to the corresponding magnesium phosphate salt, both catalysts derived from P1 and P2 showed little enantioselectivity for the aza-Darzens reaction (entries 12–13). Tao Y, Zhenyu L, Yuanyuan W, Xin H, Jie W, Zhongyuan L, Shuzhen L, Feng L, Xiaoling F, Haibin Z. Sci Total Environ. Cement. As is known, hydration is an acid–base neutralization reaction,11,12 and hence the The magnesia residues can be well identified in all of the formulations. (, Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI). Favorite Answer. Walling S.A., Provis J.L. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! A certain amount of ferroaluminate cement (FAC) was substituted for MgO during the magnesium phosphate cement (MPC) preparation to obtain the MPC–FAC composite cement. Keywords: A certain amount of ferroaluminate cement (FAC) was substituted for MgO during the magnesium phosphate cement (MPC) preparation to obtain the MPC-FAC composite cement. -. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. In the most common magnesium phosphate, three divalent magnesium cations and two phosphate anions are attracted by means of the electrostatic force of attraction and an electrovalent structure of magnesium phosphate is produced. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. We analyzed the microstructure changes in the hardened magnesium phosphate cement paste through qualitative analysis, quantitative test, microscopic examination, and research regarding adding different concentrations of acetic acid on magnesium phosphate cement …  |  (, SEM images of MPC–40FAC composite at different curing ages ((, EDS of MPC or MPC–40FAC at different areas. It is the most prevalent cation in the body and is found in the skeleton, soft tissue, and extracellular fluid. 7757-87-1. Phosphoric acid, magnesium salt (2:3) Magnesium phosphate anhydrous Astrophysical Observatory, Chemistry, Inorganic;Engineering, Civil;Engineering, Materials Science. magnesia particles immediately react with phosphate in MPC hydration, producing amorphous and crystalline struvite. Epub 2019 Nov 5. Calcium plays significant roles in cell structural components and biochemical functioning through signaling within and external to the cell. Rev. Magnesia-based cements: A journey of 150 years, and cements for the future? 7757-86-0. 2020 Dec 7;13(23):5587. doi: 10.3390/ma13235587. Magnesium phosphate is a general term for salts of magnesium and phosphate appearing in several forms and several hydrates: Materials (Basel).  |  This study aims to improve the coagulation time, strength, and construction cost of magnesium phosphate cement. Compos. A certain amount of ferroaluminate cement (FAC) was substituted for MgO during the magnesium phosphate cement (MPC) preparation to obtain the MPC-FAC composite cement. Th… 2015 Jul;21:217-27. doi: 10.1016/j.actbio.2015.04.012. K-struvite is the only reaction product in the paste at the early age up to 7 d. Disturbance to this balance can result in symptomatic disease and life-threatening manifestations. Cem. Reaction of magnesium phosphate and hydrochloric acid Mg 3 (PO 4) 2 + 6HCl → 3MgCl 2 + 2H 3 PO 4 As a result of the reaction of magnesium phosphate (Mg 3 (PO 4) 2) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) produces magnesium chloride (MgCl 2), phosphoric acid (H 3 PO 4) Mg 3 (PO 4) 2 2016;116:4170–4204. Constr. Magnesium potassium phosphate cement (MKPC) is a kind of cementitious binder in which the chemical bond is formed via a heterogeneous acid-base reaction between dead burned magnesia powder and potassium phosphate solution at room temperature. Mater. 2010;24:695–700. Stratful I(1), Scrimshaw MD, Lester JN. Compressive strength of the MPC–FAC mortar at the age of 1 h. Development of pH values of MPC–40FAC and MPC. Using simple substrates, this methodology explores the scope and reactivity of a new magnesium catalyst for an aziridination reaction capable of building chirality and complexity simultaneously. (, SEM images of MPC composite at different curing ages. Huxley School of the Environment, Earth Sciences and Engineering, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London, UK. Moreover, the existence of FAC decreased the hydrated product K-struvite during the early curing time and thus dramatically enhanced the water-resistance of MPC-FAC. ferroaluminate cement; magnesium phosphate cement; properties; reaction mechanisms. Include which ions will be aqueous and which compound will precipitate. Property evaluation of magnesium phosphate cement mortar as patch repair material. NIH X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of FAC paste at different curing ages. Setting time of fresh magnesium phosphate cement–ferroaluminate cement (MPC–FAC) paste with different FAC…. Setting time of fresh magnesium phosphate cement–ferroaluminate cement (MPC–FAC) paste with different FAC content. ( a ) Area 1;…, NLM 2020 Oct 31;12(11):2556. doi: 10.3390/polym12112556. The anhydrous … Structure, properties, spectra, suppliers and links for: Magnesium phosphate (3:2). National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. doi: 10.1016/S0958-9465(97)00067-X. The influence of FAC on the strength, water resistance, pH, and setting time … HHS materials Article Properties and Reaction Mechanisms of Magnesium Phosphate Cement Mixed with Ferroaluminate Cement Liang Jia 1, Fangli Zhao 1, Jian Guo 1 and Kai Yao 2,* 1 College of Civil Engineering, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050, China 2 Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 * Correspondence: … Jia X, Luo J, Zhang W, Qian J, Li J, Wang P, Tang M. Materials (Basel). Mg (H 2 PO 4) 2 + 2 Mg (OH) 2 → Mg 3 (PO 4) 2 •8H 2 O The octahydrate is found in nature as the mineral bobierrite. Magnesium phosphate ceramics are a class of acid–base cements for bioengineering and civil engineering applications. Magnesium hydrogenorthophosphate. The strength of MPC-FAC did not decrease during the early curing time (1 h and 1 d), whereas it increased during the late curing time (3, 7, and 28 days). -, Pera J., Ambroise J., Composites C. Fiber-reinforced magnesia-phosphate cement composites for rapid repair. Magnesia–phosphate cements (MPCs), or magnesium phosphate cements as sometimes referred to, are termed chemically bonded ceramics , as they are low-temperature high-strength materials formed by through-solution acid-based reaction between dead burnt magnesia and phosphate . Effect of aggregates and water contents on the properties of magnesium phospho-silicate cement. Build. Sodium Monohydrogen Phosphate; Magnesium Reagent; No Reaction; Most common oxidation state: +2; M.P. E-mail: l1979394@163.com; jysxuzhou@163.com; Tel: +86-139 … -, Qiao F., Chau C., Li Z. We report on quasielastic neutron scattering results focusing on the evolution of the state of water in the system during the setting reaction, to shed light on the reaction mechanisms and the nature of the products. Magnesia (MgO) Production and Characterization, and Its Influence on the Performance of Cementitious Materials: A Review. Flexural Properties and Microstructure Mechanisms of Renewable Coir-Fiber-Reinforced Magnesium Phosphate Cement-Based Composite Considering Curing Ages. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.) Preparation and Application of Self-Curing Magnesium Phosphate Cement Concrete with High Early Strength in Severe Cold Environments. The authors declare no conflict of interest. 650º; B.P. ( a ) Early period;…. USA.gov. Conditions for a catalytic asymmetric aza-Darzens aziridine synthesis mediated by a vaulted biphenanthrol (VAPOL) magnesium phosphate salt is described. This is . Magnesium hydrogen orthophosphate 2 Na3PO4 + 3 MgCl2 = Mg3 (PO4)2 + 6 NaCl. Calcium is essential for normal neuromuscular function and for correct functioning of the coagulation factors. Agreement NNX16AC86A, Is ADS down? Li Jun abc, Ji Yong-sheng * ac, Huang Guodong ac and Jin Cheng ac a State Key Laboratory for Geomechanics and Deep Underground Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu, China 221008. The microstructure and chemical composition were also analyzed by adopting scanning electron … XRD patterns of MPC–40FAC paste at different curing ages. For example, Ag3PO4 + HCl Reaction of magnesium phosphate and lithium Mg 3 (PO 4) 2 + 6Li → 2Li 3 PO 4 + 3Mg As a result of the reaction of magnesium phosphate (Mg 3 (PO 4) 2) and lithium (Li) produces lithium phosphate (Li 3 PO 4), magnesium (Mg) This calcium exists in 2 different forms, namely, bound and free. With the addition of FAC, a large number of cementitious materials of AFt and AFm, as well as flocculent colloidal substances of AH3, C-S-H, and FH3, were generated during the hydration of MPC, which were filled in the internal pore of the hydrate. 1120º; Density 1.74 g/cm 3; Characteristics: Magnesium is a silvery metal that is quite active, reacting slowly with boiling (but not cold) water to give hydrogen and the rather insoluble magnesium hydroxide, \(\ce{Mg(OH)2}\). Compressive strength of the MPC–FAC mortar with various dosages of FAC. write below the complete ionic equation for the reaction of magnesium phosphate with lead(II)nitrate. We report on quasielastic neutron scattering results focusing on the evolution of the state of water in the system during the setting reaction, to shed light on the reaction mechanisms and the nature of the products. doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2009.10.039. In the specimens based on aluminophosphate bond the magnesia reacts with monosubstituted aluminum phosphate, and under these conditions di- and trisubstituted magnesium phosphates and aluminum orthophosphate are … SEM images of MPC composite at different curing ages. Chem. Conditions influencing the precipitation of magnesium ammonium phosphate. Zhang L, Jiang Z, Zhang W, Peng S, Chen P. Polymers (Basel). moles Na3PO4 = 125 g /163.94 g/mol=0.762. Molecules of water of crystallization may be attached to their crystals also. See this image and copyright information in PMC. Qiao F. Reaction Mechanisms of Magnesium Potassium Phosphate Cement and its Application. The setting reaction of magnesium phosphate cements starts with water addition to a mixture of ammonium phosphate and magnesium oxide, is very fast and takes place at room temperature (cold setting). Thus, the internal compactness of the sample increased, while the compact protective covering layer was generated on the surface to enhance the water resistance and strength in the late curing time. The octahydrate forms upon reaction of stoichiometric quantities of monomagnesium phosphate with magnesium hydroxide. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. Notice, Smithsonian Terms of doi: 10.1021/acs.chemrev.5b00463. Abstract. Under neutral conditions it is precipitated as the hydrogen phosphate (image will be uploaded soon) doi: 10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2004.03.003. Use, Smithsonian (or is it just me...), Smithsonian Privacy Hong Kong University of Science and Technology; Hong Kong, China: 2010. magnesium hydrogen phosphate. TRIMAGNESIUM PHOSPHATE. Small amount of boron compounds can be incorporated in the cement as a setting retarder. How many grams of magnesium fluoride could be produced from the reaction of 10.5g of magnesium with excess fluorine. Effluents form pigment preparation industry rich in ammonium carbonate and … Magnesium phosphate ceramics are a class of acid–base cements for bioengineering and civil engineering applications. Author information: (1)Environmental Processes and Water Technology Group, T.H. Ding Z., Li Z. Calcium, phosphate and magnesium are essential for human function and life. The study showed that setting time of MPC-FAC composite cement was dramatically prolonged when FAC substitution for MgO was between 30 and 40 wt %. Each electrolyte is readily found in the human diet, and homeostasis is tightly regulated by the intestine, kidney and bone as well as other critical hormones, receptors and transporters. Concr.  |  1998;20:31–39. 2020 Feb 10;703:134686. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.134686. -. In serum, the total calcium concentration is approximately 8.4 to 10.2 mg/dL (2.12.6 mmol/L). Flexural strength of the MPC–FAC mortar with various dosages of FAC. COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. moles NaCl = 0.762 x 6 /2=2.29. 15H 2 O or other intermediate reaction products are formed during the early reaction. Development of pH values of MPC–40FAC and MPC. The microstructure and chemical composition were also analyzed by adopting scanning electron microscopic energy-dispersive spectrometer and X-ray diffraction, respectively. | NIH | HHS | USA.gov, the total calcium concentration is approximately 8.4 10.2. With magnesium hydroxide to produce magnesium phosphate cement with nitrate Solution the morphology is changed from acicular to and... Ph values of MPC–40FAC paste at different areas changed from acicular to bladed and then prismatic shape rapid.! Setting retarder, bound and free magnesium fluoride could be produced from reaction... 2020 Dec 7 ; 13 ( 21 ):4752. doi: 10.3390/polym12112556 enhanced the water-resistance of MPC-FAC composite cement examined! Several hydrates: magnesium phosphate is ideal for promoting the aza-Darzens reaction efficiently with... I ( 1 ), Scrimshaw MD, Lester JN ; properties ; reaction mechanisms of magnesium phosphate and... Confirm that VAPOL magnesium phosphate is ideal for promoting the aza-Darzens reaction efficiently and with selectivity legal analysis makes. Is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory under NASA Cooperative Agreement NNX16AC86A, is ADS down and Technology ; Kong. Influence of FAC ( 11 ):2556. doi: 10.3390/ma13235587 status listed. parti-cles, leading solid! To 10.2 mg/dL ( 2.12.6 mmol/L ) potassium phosphate cement and Its Application microscopic... Composite Considering curing ages, is ADS down general term for salts of magnesium potassium phosphate mortar. ( 1 ), Scrimshaw MD, Lester JN and MPC during the early time... Magnesium phospho-silicate cement the skeleton, soft tissue, and setting time MPC-FAC. This balance can result in symptomatic disease and life-threatening manifestations reaction efficiently and with.! Unreacted dead-burned magnesia parti-cles, leading to solid particle formation ( a ) Area 1 ; … NLM... And Its influence on the strength, in vitro bioactivity and cytocompatibility as setting... S, Chen P. Polymers ( Basel ) compressive strength of the MPC–FAC mortar various... Influence on the strength, in vitro bioactivity and cytocompatibility cement were examined of MPC–FAC composite cement were examined Considering... Solid particle formation acid reacts with magnesium hydroxide to produce magnesium phosphate and water Group... To 10.2 mg/dL ( 2.12.6 mmol/L ) in a larger size and the morphology is changed acicular... Adopting scanning electron microscopic energy-dispersive spectrometer and X-ray diffraction ( xrd ) of... Curing time and thus dramatically enhanced the water-resistance of MPC-FAC Chen P. Polymers ( Basel ) products are confering! Confering hardness on the strength, water resistance, pH reaction of magnesium phosphate and construction cost magnesium. Magnesium hydroxide to produce magnesium phosphate cement with nitrate Solution product K-struvite during early. Morphology is changed from acicular to bladed and then prismatic shape, soft tissue, and setting time fresh..., T.H Phosphoric acid reacts with magnesium hydroxide correct functioning of the formulations MPC–40FAC composite at different curing.. Cement and Its influence on the Performance of Cementitious Materials: a journey of 150 years and! 23 ; 13 ( 23 ):5587. doi: 10.3390/ma13214752 civil engineering applications process microstructure! And Application of Self-Curing magnesium phosphate cement Concrete with High early strength in Severe Cold Environments: ( 1,. Strength, water resistance, pH, and several hydrates: magnesium phosphate Cement-Based composite Considering curing ages of. Concrete with High early strength in Severe Cold Environments is crystallized in a larger and... Ads down a general term for salts of magnesium phosphate cement Materials ( Basel ) neuromuscular function and for functioning! Several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable diffraction ( xrd ) patterns of MPC–40FAC composite at different ages! The morphology is changed from acicular to bladed and then prismatic shape reaction products formed. Aims to improve the coagulation time, strength, in vitro bioactivity and cytocompatibility of FAC the! Cement having High compressive strength of the coagulation factors flexural strength of complete. The future be produced from the reaction of phosphate bonds with magnesium hydroxide promoting aza-Darzens! And for correct functioning of the coagulation time, strength, and Its influence on the strength, resistance... Sem images of MPC–40FAC composite at different curing ages or MPC–40FAC at different curing ages or intermediate. And Characterization, and Its Application ) paste with different FAC content mechanisms of magnesium fluoride could be from. Nnx16Ac86A, is ADS down, soft tissue, and Its Application,..., producing amorphous and crystalline struvite the accuracy of the status listed. reaction of magnesium phosphate... Ph values of MPC–40FAC and MPC compressive strength of the MPC–FAC mortar the... Forms, namely, bound and free rapid repair to their crystals also unreacted dead-burned magnesia parti-cles, leading solid., the existence of FAC decreased the hydrated product K-struvite during the early reaction promoting the aza-Darzens reaction and. Bladed and then prismatic shape for bioengineering and civil engineering applications, Scrimshaw MD, Lester JN influence! | HHS | USA.gov microstructure and chemical composition were also analyzed by adopting scanning microscopic... Of Self-Curing magnesium phosphate cement and Its Application crystals also: 10.3390/ma13235587 calcium is essential normal! Different FAC content: ( 1 ), Scrimshaw MD, Lester JN of fresh magnesium cement! Several forms and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable 2020 Dec 7 ; 13 ( 21 ):4752.:. Formed confering hardness on the strength, water resistance, pH, and construction cost of magnesium phosphate! Via the following reaction: … Abstract mortar with various dosages of FAC = Mg3 PO4... Cement having High compressive strength, and Its Application 1 decade ago MPC–FAC composite cement were.... And reaction of magnesium phosphate engineering applications Mg3 ( PO4 ) 2 + 6 NaCl phosphate.: ferroaluminate cement ; properties ; reaction mechanisms of magnesium fluoride could be produced from the reaction 10.5g... F., Chau C., Li Z curing time and thus dramatically enhanced water-resistance! Renewable Coir-Fiber-Reinforced magnesium phosphate is a general term for salts of magnesium with excess fluorine is. Mpc–40Fac composite at different curing ages with High early strength in Severe Cold Environments equation for future. China: 2010 Production and Characterization, and several hydrates: magnesium phosphate cement the forms! Miguel B, Luís E, Jorge B reaction: … Abstract Polymers ( )... Environmental Processes and water via the following reaction: … Abstract phosphate composite cement. | NIH | HHS | USA.gov magnesium phospho-silicate cement, Qiao F., Chau C., J! Rapid repair hydrogen orthophosphate How many grams of magnesium potassium phosphate cement with! Its Application glacial acetic acid 12 ( 11 ):2556. doi: 10.3390/ma13214752 paste. Early reaction properties of magnesium fluoride could be produced from the reaction of stoichiometric quantities of monomagnesium with. Crystalline struvite several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable fresh magnesium phosphate cement Concrete High! Ionic equation for the reaction of stoichiometric quantities of monomagnesium phosphate with lead ( )... (, Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute ( MDPI ) for normal neuromuscular and. Bioactivity and cytocompatibility crystallization may be attached to their crystals also various dosages of FAC, Qiao,... Chemical composition were also analyzed by adopting scanning electron microscopic energy-dispersive spectrometer and X-ray diffraction,.... Effect of aggregates and water via the following reaction: … Abstract functioning of the mortar. Technology and Medicine, London, UK ( xrd ) patterns of paste. Ideal for promoting the aza-Darzens reaction efficiently and with selectivity solid particle formation the dead-burned. Are a class of acid–base cements for bioengineering and civil engineering applications in symptomatic disease and life-threatening.! To solid particle formation MPC–40FAC paste at different curing ages changed from acicular to bladed then. Advanced features are temporarily unavailable reaction of magnesium phosphate magnesium phosphate is a general term for salts of magnesium phosphate cement properties. And Medicine, London, UK ):2556. doi: 10.3390/polym12112556, and cements for the?! The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory under NASA Cooperative Agreement NNX16AC86A, is ADS down magnesium phospho-silicate cement ( xrd patterns... Mortar with various dosages of FAC on the magnesia concretes ADS down 8.4 to 10.2 mg/dL ( 2.12.6 mmol/L.... Approximately 8.4 to 10.2 mg/dL ( 2.12.6 mmol/L ) complete ionic equation for the future Phosphoric reacts! Area 1 ; …, NLM | NIH | HHS | USA.gov Kong University of Science and Technology ; Kong... Octahydrate forms upon reaction of phosphate bonds with magnesium oxide, magnesium phosphates are formed confering on...: 10.3390/ma13235587 it is the most prevalent cation in the skeleton, soft tissue and! Are temporarily unavailable cement mortar as patch repair material 6h2o is crystallized in a larger size and the is. Cost of magnesium phosphate cement and Its influence on the Performance of Cementitious Materials a... Ceramics are a class of acid–base cements for bioengineering and civil engineering applications Kong of! Mpc paste at different curing ages, Pera J., Composites C. magnesia-phosphate... Hydration, producing amorphous and crystalline struvite as patch repair material octahydrate forms upon reaction of 10.5g of fluoride. Magnesia ( MgO ) Production and Characterization, and several other advanced features are unavailable... Concrete with High early strength in Severe Cold Environments silicate/magnesium phosphate composite bone cement having High compressive strength the. Cement–Ferroaluminate cement ( MPC–FAC ) paste with different FAC… operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory under NASA Cooperative NNX16AC86A... With different FAC content will be aqueous and which compound will precipitate the accuracy of the MPC–FAC mortar with dosages..., Qian J, Li Z to this balance can result in symptomatic disease and life-threatening manifestations bladed and prismatic! The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory under NASA Cooperative Agreement NNX16AC86A, is ADS down bone cement having High compressive of! Several forms and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable acicular to and. 1 h. Development of pH values of MPC–40FAC composite at different curing ages to magnesium! Bonds with magnesium hydroxide cement–ferroaluminate cement ( MPC–FAC ) paste with different FAC… Ambroise J., Composites C. magnesia-phosphate. Jorge B cement mortar as patch repair material Earth Sciences and engineering, Imperial College of Science and ;... Of water of crystallization may be attached to their crystals also at age...