"Black Harry" Hosier, an illiterate freedman who drove Francis Asbury on his circuits, proved to be able to memorize large passages of the Bible verbatim and became a cross-over success, as popular among white audiences as the black ones Asbury had originally intended for him to minister. The Methodist Church used circuit riders to reach people in frontier locations. Newer denominations, such as Methodists and Baptists, grew quickly. T… [29] His sermon at Thomas Chapel in Chapeltown, Delaware, in 1784 was the first to be delivered by a black preacher directly to a white congregation.[30]. Second Great Awakening A series of religious revivals starting in 1801, based on Methodism and Baptism. The Second Great Awakening led to a period of antebellum social reform and an emphasis on salvation by institutions. In the West, the Second Great Awakening began with James McGready (1762?–1817). Efforts to apply Christian teaching to the resolution of social problems presaged the Social Gospel of the late 19th century. Women, who formed a large part of voluntary societies of the time, such as the Female Missionary Society and the Maternal Association, came to join these organizations due to their felt a responsibility to the community. A second important figure during the Great Awakening was George Whitefield. When priests and preachers began to organize camp meetings, their official goal was to convert the masses back to religious devotion. [28] Social activism influenced abolition groups and supporters of the Temperance movement. Baptists and Methodists in the South preached to slaveholders and slaves alike. Significance The Second Great Awakening marked a fundamental transition in American religious life. [36], The greatest change in women's roles stemmed from participation in newly formalized missionary and reform societies. [45], Historians stress the common understanding among participants of reform as being a part of God's plan. They did not stem entirely from the Second Great Awakening, but the revivalist doctrine and the expectation that one's conversion would lead to personal action accelerated the role of women's social benevolence work. He was known as the "Great Itinerant" because he traveled and preached all around North … Second Great Awakening, Protestant religious revival in the United States from about 1795 to 1835. Like the First Great Awakening a half century earlier, the Second Great Awakening in North America reflected Romanticism characterized by enthusiasm, emotion, and an appeal to the supernatural. One of the most important issues at the time, abolitionism was a topic of great debate and increasing violence throughout the States. The idea of restoring a "primitive" form of Christianity grew in popularity in the U.S. after the American Revolution. This revival expressed Arminian theology. There were camp meetings. Griffin, Clifford S. "Religious Benevolence as Social Control, 1815–1860". Women would soon begin to work towards the vote and other causes, such as abolitionism. [32], Women, who made up the majority of converts during the Awakening, played a crucial role in its development and focus. [24]:368 While the leaders of one of the two primary groups making up this movement, Thomas Campbell and Alexander Campbell, resisted what they saw as the spiritual manipulation of the camp meetings, the revivals contributed to the development of the other major branch, led by Barton W. They began efforts to reform prisons and care for the handicapped and mentally ill. 4 (March 1991), p. 1218 and 1237. International Conference of Reformed Churches, North American Presbyterian and Reformed Council, 13th Amendment to the United States Constitution, Timeline of abolition of slavery and serfdom, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Ethnocultural politics in the United States, "Backcountry Religious Ways: The North British Field-Meeting Style", "Religious Transformation and the Second Great Awakening", Introducing Black Harry Hoosier: The History Behind Indiana's Namesake, Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) in the U.S. and Canada, Christian churches and churches of Christ, Rise of the Evangelical Church in Latin America, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Second_Great_Awakening&oldid=992554885, History of Christianity in the United States, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2019, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from October 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. [33] Despite white attempts to control independent African-American congregations, especially after the Nat Turner uprising of 1831, a number of African-American congregations managed to maintain their separation as independent congregations in Baptist associations. Women were sick of drunk men coming home raged, priests wished for more religious individuals to come to Church, who were more devoted to God than before, and finally, supposedly God too looked down on those who drank alcohol. need to go back to earlier revivals and the current social environment of the 1800's. There is no doubt that the Second Great Awakening's increase of religious influence in America led to the Civil War. Among the new denominations that grew from the religious ferment of the Second Great Awakening are the Churches of Christ, Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), the Seventh-day Adventist Church, and the Evangelical Christian Church in Canada. As religion became more and more prevalent in women's lives, women also grew more influential in religion. [41] The influence of the Awakening continued in the form of more secular movements. The Second Great Awakening took place in the new United States between 1790 and 1840. The United States was becoming a more culturally diverse nation in the early to mid-19th centu… [24]:368 Publication and education societies promoted Christian education; most notable among them was the American Bible Society, founded in 1816. The religious revivals known as the Great Awakening and the Second Great Awakening swept through both the North and South periodically from the 1740s through the 1780s. George Fredrickson argues that Postmillennial theology "was an impetus to the promotion of Progressive reforms, as historians have frequently pointed out. It was led by people such as Charles Grandison Finney, Henry Ward Beecher, Lyman Beecher, E dward Everett and Joseph Smith. "[7] During the Second Great Awakening of the 1830s, some diviners expected the millennium to arrive in a few years. Mathews, Donald G. "The Second Great Awakening as an organizing process, 1780–1830: An hypothesis". Postmillennialists believed that Christ will return to earth after the "Millennium", which could entail either a literal 1,000 years or a figurative "long period" of peace and happiness. One idea was temperance, which is the abstinence from any alcohol. While the movement unified the colonies and boosted church growth, experts say it also caused division among those who supported it and those who rejected it. Despite being called the "greatest orator in America" by Benjamin Rush[31] and one of the best in the world by Bishop Thomas Coke,[30] Hosier was repeatedly passed over for ordination and permitted no vote during his attendance at the Christmas Conference that formally established American Methodism. Early religious groups believed humans were dark and evil, and only the grace of God could save them. Due to the efforts of such leaders as Stone and Alexander Campbell (1788–1866), the camp meeting revival spread religious enthusiasm and became a major mode of church expansion, especially for the Methodists and Baptists. Baptists and Methodist revivals were successful in some parts of the Tidewater South, where an increasing number of common planters, plain folk, and slaves were converted. Second Great Awakening The Great Awakening came to an end sometime during the 1740s. The name refers to the fact that this period followed the First Great Awakening, which was a period of … This ‘Second Great Awakening’ consisted of several kinds of activity, distinguished by locale and expression of religious commitment.” (Outline of American History). [37] Through women's positions in these organizations, women gained influence outside of the private sphere. Evangelists often directly addressed issues such as slavery, greed, and poverty, laying the groundwork for later reform movements. Revivals were a key part of the movement and attracted hundreds of converts to new Protestant denominations. There were also societies that broadened their focus from traditional religious concerns to larger societal ones. Soon after, the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church (AME Zion) was founded as another denomination in New York City. The Great Camp Meetings. People did not have the time or the inclination for worship. In what ways did renewed religious enthusiasm mesh with the cultural and political optimism of the Jeffersonian era? It was a time of evangelical passion and revival in American. [26] The Female Missionary Society and the Maternal Association, both active in Utica, NY, were highly organized and financially sophisticated women's organizations responsible for many of the evangelical converts of the New York frontier.[27]. Richard Allen, the other black attendee, was ordained by the Methodists in 1799, but his congregation of free African Americans in Philadelphia left the church there because of its discrimination. The second great awakening revived the emotional side of religion and was a reaction against rationalism and the enlightenment. The Great Awakening was also a "national" occurrence. [8][9] Charles Finney, a leading revivalist active in the area, coined the term. To a lesser extent the Presbyterians also gained members, particularly with the Cumberland Presbyterian Church in sparsely settled areas. Stressed a religious philosophy of salvation through good deeds and tolerance for all Protestant sects. The Methodist Church used circuit ridersto reach people in frontier locations. While Protestant religion had previously played an important role on the American political scene, the Second Great Awakening strengthened the role it would play. During this time also, there was the reject of the doctrine of predestination as taught by Calvin over the course of the first awakening. As a result, the numerical strength of the Baptists and Methodists rose relative to that of the denominations dominant in the colonial period—the Anglicans, Presbyterians, Congregationalists. It pushed the idea of individual salvation and free will over predestination. Especially in the Baptist Church, African Americans were welcomed as members and as preachers. The Second Great Awakening was a Protestant revival movement during the early nineteenth century. Revivals were a key part of the movement and attracted hundreds of converts to new Protestant denominations. While it occurred in all parts of the United States, it was especially strong in the Northeast and the Midwest. After first submitting to oversight by the established Methodist bishops, several AME congregations finally left to form the first independent African-American denomination in the United States in 1816. They founded the African Methodist Episcopal Church (AME) in Philadelphia. The Second Great Awakening was a revival with a greater effect on society than any other revival in America and had a tremendous effect on American society by spawning a large number of … The second great awakening was a period of religious revival that encourages individuals to pursue the knowledge of God and self. By the early 19th century, independent African-American congregations numbered in the several hundreds in some cities of the South, such as Charleston, South Carolina, and Richmond and Petersburg, Virginia. Leaders such as Charles Finney saw women's public prayer as a crucial aspect in preparing a community for revival and improving their efficacy in conversion. Birdsall, Richard D. "The Second Great Awakening and the New England Social Order". [14] Upon their return home, most converts joined or created small local churches, which grew rapidly. While it occurred in all parts of the United States, it was especially strong in the Northeast and the Midwest. It arose in several places and in several active forms. Unlike before and in predestination, people now believed their free will would lead them to Heaven, and began to lead much more religious lives in an attempt to be saved. The Second Great Awakening laid the foundations of the development of present-day religious beliefs and establishments, moral views, and democratic ideals in the United States. Daniel Walker Howe, "The Evangelical Movement and Political Culture in the North During the Second Party System", The Journal of American History 77, no. This movement rose in the 1820's and declined in the 1870's. Women also created social circles where they could share religious ideas and talk about Protestantism. However, women took other public roles; for example, relaying testimonials about their conversion experience, or assisting sinners (both male and female) through the conversion process. A primitive faith based on the Bible alone promised a way to sidestep the competing claims of the many denominations available and for congregations to find assurance of being right without the security of an established national church. Husbands, especially in the South, sometimes disapproved of their wives' conversion, forcing women to choose between submission to God or their spouses. The outpouring of religious fervor and revival began in Kentucky and Tennessee in the 1790s and early 1800s among the Presbyterians, Methodists and Baptists. In the 1830s, female moral reform societies rapidly spread across the North making it the first predominantly female social movement. Stone. [18] Cane Ridge was also instrumental in fostering what became known as the Restoration Movement, which consisted of non-denominational churches committed to what they viewed as the original, fundamental Christianity of the New Testament. As the Second Great Awakening progressed, Church leaders searched for more ways to help people devote themselves more fully to Protestantism. Revivals were a key part of the movement and attracted hundreds of … [11], On the American frontier, evangelical denominations, especially Methodists and Baptists, sent missionary preachers and exhorters to meet the people in the backcountry in an effort to support the growth of church membership and the formation of new congregations. [32] With the growth in congregations and churches, Baptist associations formed in Virginia, for instance, as well as Kentucky and other states. The Second Great Awakening, which spread religion through revival meetings and emotional preaching, sparked a number of reform movements. It gave them people agency in their own religious lives that Calvinism had denied them. In 1800, out of African-American revival meetings in Virginia, a plan for slave rebellion was devised by Gabriel Prosser, although the rebellion was discovered and crushed before it started. [25], Congregationalists set up missionary societies to evangelize the western territory of the northern tier. There was no such episode in England, … The movement started around 1800, had begun to gain momentum by 1820, and was in decline by 1870. Kentucky was also influenced by a … In an effort to give sermons that would resonate with the congregation, ministers stressed Christ's humility and forgiveness, in what the historian Barbara Welter calls a "feminization" of Christianity. One of the most important issues at the time, abolitionism was a topic of great debate and increasing violence throughout the States. During the first half of the 1800's New York: Octagon Books, 1976, 139, Barbara Welter, "The Feminization of American Religion: 1800–1860," in. [19], The Methodist circuit riders and local Baptist preachers made enormous gains in increasing church membership. Many early American religious groups in the Calvinist tradition had emphasized the deep depravity of human beings and believed they could only be saved through the grace of God. It due to these social and societal pressures that temperance began to take hold. "The Historiography of the Second Great Awakening and the Problem of Historical Causation, 1945–2005". One of the most important issues at the time, abolitionism was a topic of great debate and increasing violence throughout the States. Th… Several new groups formed to promote and strengthen … Over one hundred years later, temperance would be placed into law, with alcohol banned due to the 18th Amendment in Prohibition. It created divisions within the church leading to more … [41], Protestant religious revival in the early 19th-century United States, George M. Fredrickson, "The Coming of the Lord: The Northern Protestant Clergy and the Civil War Crisis," in. Eventually, as these societies grew, certain leaders rose to the top, and created more opportunities and gave more leadership roles to women. Revivalism – The Second Great Awakening. The circuit riders came from among the common people, which helped them establish rapport with the frontier families they hoped to convert. A 1932 source estimated at least three female converts to every two male converts between 1798 and 1826. The Second Great Awakening was a U.S. religious revival that began in the late eighteenth century and lasted until the middle of the nineteenth century. The congregations of these denomination were committed to individuals' achieving a personal relationship with Christ. New religious movements emerged during the Second Great Awakening, such as Adventism, Dispensationalism, and the Latter Day Saint movement. Subsequent meetings followed at the nearby Gasper River and Muddy River congregations. These two groups provided ample opportunity for religious growth, and so the preachers of the religious revival set their sights on communicating and focusing more on women. It due to these social and societal pressures that temperance began to take hold. The Second Great Awakening served as an "organizing process" that created "a religious and educational infrastructure" across the western frontier that encompassed social networks, a religious journalism that provided mass communication, and church-related colleges. The causes of the Second Great Awakening included the social disruptions of the Market Revolution, the democratization of American culture, and a … The reason for this was quite simple - If people drank less, they would commit less crimes and misdemeanors while under the influence. It greatly increased the number of Christians both in New England and on the frontier. Long, Kimberly Bracken. Christians thus had a duty to purify society in preparation for that return. In the West, the Second Great Awakening began with James McGready (1762?–1817). The Second Great Awakening occurred in several episodes and over different denominations; however, the revivals were very similar. At the beginning of the early 19th century Christian… State legislatures[which?] In conclusion: Looking back on the historical religious movement that was the Second Great Awakening, significance of equality and freedom was created. The Second Great Awakening was a Protestant religious movement in the United States. [24]:368, Efforts to apply Christian teaching to the resolution of social problems presaged the Social Gospel of the late 19th century. During the period of revival, mothers were seen as the moral and spiritual foundation of the family, and were thus tasked with instructing children in matters of religion and ethics. It was the first major event that all the colonies could share, helping to break down differences between them. The second Great Awakening is significant because it changed the character of American religion. As the Second Great Awakening progressed, Church leaders searched for more ways to help people devote themselves more fully to Protestantism. Known commonly as antebellum reform, this phenomenon included reforms against the consumption of alcohol, for women's rights and abolition of slavery, and a multitude of other issues faced by society. Generally less emotional than the Great Awakening, the Second Great Awakening led to the founding of colleges and seminaries and to the organization of mission societies. second great awakening significance 20 Settembre 2020 No Comments Finanza In order to fulfill their religious goals, many Christians became abolitionists, looking to rid society, their families, and the communities of slavery and its Sin.The Second Great Awakening would also promote a drastic increase in women's rights from years prior. "The Second Great Awakening in the Urban Centers: An Examination of Methodism and the 'New Measures, Cott, Nancy F. "Young Women in the Second Great Awakening in New England,". [15], The Revival of 1800 in Logan County, Kentucky, began as a traditional Presbyterian sacramental occasion. The Second Great Awakening, which spread religion through revivals and emotional preaching, sparked a number of reform movements. There was no such episode in England, further highlighting variances between Americans and their cousins across the sea. This religious movement was felt nationwide and consisted of small and large gatherings alike. By all means, this goal was a success. Women, who formed a large part of voluntary societies of the time, such as the Female Missionary Society and the Maternal Association, came to join these organizations due to their felt a responsibility to the community. Most of the Scots-Irish immigrants before the American Revolutionary War settled in the backcountry of Pennsylvania and down the spine of the Appalachian Mountains in present-day Maryland and Virginia, where Presbyterian emigrants and Baptists held large outdoor gatherings in the years prior to the war. The religions following the second Great Awakening focused on … The Second Great Awakening exercised a profound impact on American religious history. Women were sick of drunk men coming home raged, priests wished for more religious individuals to come to Church, who were more devoted to God than before, and finally, supposedly God too looked down on those who drank alcohol. [44] More active participation in politics by more segments of the population brought religious and moral issues into the political sphere. [23]:89–94 This desire to restore a purer form of Christianity without an elaborate hierarchy contributed to the development of many groups during the Second Great Awakening, including the Latter Day Saints, Baptists and Shakers. The Second Great Awakening was marked by a sudden earnestness in Christian devotion and Christlike imitation of life. Middletown: Wesleyan University Press, 1981. Created by Aditya Shelke, August 28th, 2019, Topic Number 9, The Second Great Awakening (Part of Social Reform in Antebellum America), Significance of the Second Great Awakening -. It led to the founding of several well known colleges, seminaries and mission societies. In the 1790s, another religious revival, which became known as the Second Great Awakening, … Settlers in thinly populated areas gathered at the camp meeting for fellowship as well as worship. One idea was temperance, which is the abstinence from any alcohol. These camp meetings and tent revivals were important, as a religious fever pitch seemed to spread as the country grew. It is not clear why women converted in larger numbers than men. The revival also inspired slaves to demand freedom. All were … [24]:368 The Southern phase of the Awakening "was an important matrix of Barton Stone's reform movement" and shaped the evangelistic techniques used by both Stone and the Campbells. The Second Great Awakening, which spread religion through revivals and emotional preaching, sparked a number of reform movements. It helped propel numerous reform movements, most notably involving temperance and abolition, even as it attempted to return Christianity to its primitive roots. This duty extended beyond American borders to include Christian Restorationism. Shiels, Richard D. "The Second Great Awakening in Connecticut: Critique of the Traditional Interpretation". The camp meeting was a religious service of several days' length with preachers. [citation needed] Another key component of the revivalists' techniques was the camp meeting. https://ageofreform2016.wordpress.com/2016/04/11/second-great-awakening "The Invention of the Great Awakening, 1795–1842". Pietism was sweeping Germanic countries[4] and evangelicalism was waxing strong in England.[5]. The Second Great Awakening would also promote a drastic increase in women's rights from years prior. What was the Second Great Awakening?The Second Great Awakening was prompted by falling interest in religion when people were excited about the innovations of the Industrial Revolution and the rapid expansion of U.S. territories, particularly in the west. A year later, in August 1801, an even larger sacrament occasion that is generally considered to be America's first camp meeting was held at Cane Ridge in Bourbon County, Kentucky, under Barton W. Stone (1772–1844) with numerous Presbyterian, Baptist, and Methodist ministers participating in the services. Johnson, Charles A. The spirit of evangelical humanitarian reforms was carried on in the antebellum Whig party. The 2 nd Great Awakening was a religious revival that took place after the American Revolution between 1790 and 1840 in an effort to restore a simpler form of Christianity. "The Frontier Camp Meeting: Contemporary and Historical Appraisals, 1805–1840". Social reform, especially in northern states, was an important part of the Second Great Awakening. To immigrants in the early 19th century, the land in the United States seemed pristine, edenic and undefiled – "the perfect place to recover pure, uncorrupted and original Christianity" – and the tradition-bound European churches seemed out of place in this new setting. People also believed that by drinking less, they could limit the time they were not in full control of themselves, maximizing the time for them to do good works and live as fulfilled Christians. [35] Women also took crucial roles in the conversion and religious upbringing of children. [10] Linda K. Pritchard uses statistical data to show that compared to the rest of New York State, the Ohio River Valley in the lower Midwest, and the country as a whole, the religiosity of the Burned-over District was typical rather than exceptional. [21], The Advent Movement emerged in the 1830s and 1840s in North America, and was preached by ministers such as William Miller, whose followers became known as Millerites. What were the causes and effects of the Second Great Awakening? The Second Great Awakening was a Protestant religious revival during the early 19th century in the United States. The 2 nd Great Awakening was a religious revival that took place after the American Revolution between 1790 and 1840 in an effort to restore a simpler form of Christianity. All three of these congregations were under the ministry of James McGready. Summary: The Second Great Awakening was a Protestant religious movement during the early 19th century in the United States. Churches with roots in this movement include the Churches of Christ, Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), and the Evangelical Christian Church in Canada. The Second Great Awakening changed Americans' understanding of their relationship with God. The awakening brought comfort in the face of uncertainty as a result of the socio-political changes in America. While the Second Great Awakening does not refer to an exact time period, one its starting points has been identified as the revival held at Cane Ridge, Kentucky in 1801. Ordinary people were encouraged to make a personal connection with God, instead of relying on a minister. Douglas Allen Foster and Anthony L. Dunnavant, Elizabeth J.Clapp, and Julie Roy Jeffrey, ed., Women, Dissent and Anti-slavery in Britain and America, 1790–1865, (Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2011): 13–14, Barbara Welter, "The Feminization of American Religion: 1800–1860," in Clio's Consciousness Raised, edited by Mary S. Hartman and Lois Banner. This religious movement was felt nationwide and consisted of small and large gatherings alike. Evangelist ideas, stating that one's good works and faith on Earth could directly affect whether or not they received salvation, helped bring about the success of the awakening. Historians named the Second Great Awakening in the context of the First Great Awakening of the 1730s and 1750s and of the Third Great Awakening of the late 1850s to early 1900s. The Civil War, happening only 20 years after the end of the Second Great Awakening… It raised ideas about individual liberty and reason. The second great awakening was a religious revival in America. Bratt, James D. "Religious Anti-revivalism in Antebellum America", Carwardine, Richard J. It due to the Civil War form of evangelizing during this period, revival meetings across! Edwards, Whitefield was a topic of Great debate and increasing violence throughout the.. To every two male converts between 1798 and 1826 Meardon, `` from religious revivals starting in 1801 based... 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